James William Fulbright
James William Fulbright was born in Sumner, Missouri, on 9th April, 1905. The following year he moved with his parents to Fayettesville, Arkansas. After graduating from the University of Arkansas in 1925, he attended Oxford University as a Rhodes Scholar.
On his return to the United States Fulbright studied law at the George Washington University and was admitted to the District of Columbia bar in 1934. Later that year he became an attorney at the United States Department of Justice. Later he taught law at the University of Arkansas (1936-39).
A member of the Democratic Party, Fulbright was elected to the House of Representatives in 1942. The following year he persuaded fellow representatives to adopt the Fulbright Resolution, a measure that encouraged the United States participation in what was to become the United Nations.
In 1944 Fulbright he successfully won a seat in the Senate. Two years later he encouraged Congress to pass the Fulbright Act, a scheme that provided for the exchange of students and teachers between the United States and other countries.
Fulbright was concerned about the activities of Joseph McCarthy and in 1954 he was the only senator to vote against an appropriation for the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, which was chaired by McCarthy.
In 1959 Fulbright became chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee. In this post he was highly critical of President John F. Kennedy when he gave the order for the Bay of Pigs invasion in 1961. He was also strongly opposed to U.S. involvement in Vietnam. These views on politics were strongly expressed in his books, Old Myths and New Realities (1964), The Arrogance of Power (1966), The Pentagon Propaganda Machine (1970) and The Crippled Giant (1972).
In the 1974 Democratic primary in Arkansas, he was defeated by Dale Bumpers. After leaving the Senate he worked for the law firm of Hogan and Hartson in Washington. James William Fulbright died on 9th February, 1995.
(1) J. William Fulbright, interview in the New York Times (30th April, 1985)
The biggest lesson I learned from Vietnam is not to trust our own government statements. I had no idea until then that you could not rely on them.
(2) J. William Fulbright, speech (26th June, 1986)
I’m sure that President Johnson would never have pursued the war in Vietnam if he’d ever had a Fulbright (student) to Japan, or say Bangkok, or had any feeling for what these people are like and why they acted the way they did. He was completely ignorant.
(3) J. William Fulbright, Arrogance of Power (1966)
The attitude above all others which I feel sure is no longer valid is the arrogance of power, the tendency of great nations to equate power with virtue and major responsibilities with a universal mission. The dilemmas involved are preeminently American dilemmas, not because America has weaknesses that others do not have but because America is powerful as no nation has ever been before and the discrepancy between its power and the power of others appears to be increasing.
We are now engaged in a war to "defend freedom" in South Vietnam. Unlike the Republic of Korea, South Vietnam has an army which is without notable success and a weak, dictatorial government which does not command the loyalty of the South Vietnamese people. The official war aims of the United States Government, as I understand them, are to defeat what is regarded as North Vietnamese aggression, to demonstrate the futility of what the communists call "wars of national liberation," and to create conditions under which the South Vietnamese people will be able freely to determine their own future. I have not the slightest doubt of the sincerity of the President and the Vice President and the Secretaries of State and Defense in propounding these aims. What I do doubt - and doubt very much - is the ability of the United States to achieve these aims by the means being used. I do not question the power of our weapons and the efficiency of our logistics; I cannot say these things delight me as they seem to delight some of our officials, but they are certainly impressive. What I do question is the ability of the United States, or France or any other Western nation, to go into a small, alien, undeveloped Asian nation and create stability where there is chaos, the will to fight where there is defeatism, democracy, where there is no tradition of it and honest government where corruption is almost a way of life. Our handicap is well expressed in the pungent Chinese proverb: "In shallow waters dragons become the sport of shrimps."
Early last month demonstrators in Saigon burned American jeeps, tried to assault American soldiers, and marched through the streets shouting "Down with the American imperialists," while one of the Buddhist leaders made a speech equating the United States with the communists as a threat to South Vietnamese independence. Most Americans are understandably shocked and angered to encounter such hostility from people who by now would be under the rule of the Viet Cong but for the sacrifice of American lives and money. Why, we may ask, are they so shockingly ungrateful? Surely they must know that their very right to parade and protest and demonstrate depends on the Americans who are defending them.
The answer, I think, is that "fatal impact" of the rich and strong on the poor and weak. Dependent on it though the Vietnamese are, our very strength is a reproach to their weakness, our wealth a mockery of their poverty, our success a reminder of their failures. What they resent is the disruptive effect of our strong culture upon their fragile one, an effect which we can no more avoid than a man can help being bigger than a child. What they fear, I think rightly, is that traditional Vietnamese society cannot survive the American economic and cultural impact
The cause of our difficulties in southeast Asia is not a deficiency of power but an excess of the wrong kind of power which results in a feeling of impotence when it fails to achieve its desired ends. We are still acting like boy scouts dragging reluctant old ladies across the streets they do not want to cross. We are trying to remake Vietnamese society, a task which certainly cannot be accomplished by force and which probably cannot be accomplished by any means available to outsiders. The objective may b e desirable, but it is not feasible.
If America has a service to perform in the world - and I believe it has - it is in large part the service of its own example. In our excessive involvement in the affairs of other countries, we are not only living off our assets and denying our own people the proper enjoyment of their resources; we are also denying the world the example of a free society enjoying its freedom to the fullest. This is regrettable indeed for a nation that aspires to teach democracy to other nations, because, as Burke said! "Example is the school of mankind, and they will learn at no other."
There are many respects in which America, if it can bring itself to act with the magnanimity and the empathy appropriate to its size and power, can be an intelligent example to the world. We have the opportunity to set an example of generous understanding in our relations with China, of practical cooperation for peace in our relations with Russia, of reliable and respectful partnership in our relations with Western Europe, of material helpfulness without moral presumption in our relations with the developing nations, of abstention from the temptations of hegemony in our relations with Latin America, and of the all around advantages of minding one's own business in our relations with everybody. Most of all, we have the opportunity to serve as an example of democracy to the world by the way in which we run our own society; America, in the words of John Quincy Adams, should be "the well-wisher to the freedom and independence of all" but "the champion and vindicator only of her own."
If we can bring ourselves so to act, we will have overcome the dangers of the arrogance of power. It will involve, no doubt, the loss of certain glories, but that seems a price worth paying for the probable rewards, which are the happiness of America and the peace of the world.
Last updated: 8th September, 2002